A Short History of Sidecars
May 13, 2011
Filed under Sidecar + Scooter + Trike Motorcycle Reviews
Curious conveyances, sidecars. Few of us have ever ridden in one, fewer yet driven a rig. But there is a small, passionate number of sidecarists who love their three-wheeled machines, sometimes referred to as hacks or chairs, and a sizable number of companies that cater to these aficionados.
The origins of the sidecar are in much dispute, but with the patenting of the “roller chain” in 1880, and the popularization of the “safety” bicycle (two equal-sized wheels with a chain driving the rear one), creative types developed very light sidecars so an energetic young bicyclist could carry his damsel in an approved fashion.
When the bicycle got motorized, thought was immediately given to carrying a passenger. In that late-Victorian Age a respectable woman would never be seen riding pillion, not to mention that early pillion seats were horribly uncomfortable. The first reference to a motorcycle sidecar that I can find was an 1893 contest put on by a French newspaper that offered a prize for the best way to carry a passenger comfortably and elegantly. Three very different solutions were presented, the forecar, the trailer-car and the sidecar.
The forecar was a tricycle contraption, with two wheels and the passenger seat(s) in front, the operator sitting behind. Anybody who has had the pleasure of being in Saigon in the halcyon 1960s has probably taken a ride in one of these contraptions, usually controlled by a speed-crazed Viet Cong sociopath. The main problem here is that the passenger takes the brunt of any collision.
The trailer-car concept was quite rudimentary, with an elevated tongue going above the rear wheel and attaching to the frame of the motorcycle, generally under the seat. This two-wheeled chair could provide quite sumptuous accommodations, but it meant the passenger was on the receiving end of all the exhaust smoke and noise. Not popular with the gracious ladies.
The third, and lasting, variation was the sidecar. The earliest photo I have seen of a sidecar is from 1903, bolted on to a Thor motorcycle; that year the American company listed one in its catalog. The car is very presentable, all done in wicker…useful for its light weight. Five years later many motorcycle companies were offering sidecars from the factory, and not only chairs, but also cargo boxes or sidevans for delivery vehicles. Motorcycle outfits were inexpensive compared to automobiles, and with the poor condition of American roads had the advantage of being easy to push when stuck.
Sidecar frames were quite basic, generally made of tubular steel, with a passenger car or utility box bolted on. In 1913 sidecar designers were using two, three and four points for attaching the car to the motorcycle frame—the two-pointer has vanished, probably due to too many sidecars detaching themselves at speed. The most basic rigs had no suspension, but leaf springs began to take over. In 1913 Earl Johnson, of Harlan, Iowa, patented a sidecar chassis with a wheel that tilted with the motorcycle, anticipating the famed Flxi-Flyer and Equa-Lean designs. The car/box itself developed any number of renditions—single seaters, two seaters, fire-fighting apparatus, chimney-sweeping equipment, etc.
Harley-Davidson was eager to get in on the sidecar bonanza, and its first cataloged hack was in 1914, although it was actually built by the Rogers company. In 1915 Harley produced its own car, and the company is still making them. In 1916 the U.S. Army ordered up some Harleys with sidecars to help track down Pancho Villa in the deserts along the Mexican border, and Bill Harley developed machine-gun mounts for the sidecars. During World War I a lot of sidecar outfits were deployed on the Western Front, but these were mostly used for dispatch service and ferrying officers about, rather than charging enemy lines with machine gun blazing.
Following The War To End All Wars, the presence of sidecars was much less common, as automobiles became quite inexpensive. There was still a thriving trade, and companies like England’s Watsonian (selling sidecars since 1912), Germany’s Steib (started in 1914) and Jim Goulding’s operations in both Australia and the United States were quite active, but limited. The Depression may have helped the industry slightly, as a sidecar outfit was often the cheapest way to get around.
Following World War II the American consumer crowd wanted big cars, not sidecars. In Europe, due to light taxation for two- and three-wheelers and an inadequate supply of automobiles, another flurry of sidecar interest erupted. However, by the late 1950s—thanks to cheap cars like Britain’s Ford Popular and Germany’s VW—the econo-boxes were again winning out against the sidecar rigs.
The industry withdrew, realizing that as a practical unit, the sidecar rig was doomed. The only factories producing them as utilitarian vehicles were Eastern Bloc, like Czechoslovakia’s Velorex, in conjunction with Jawa motorcycles, the Ural and Dneper factories in the Soviet Union, and the Chinese. And Harley, of course, although mostly for parade use.
But the enthusiasts kept the legend alive. Californian Doug Bingham, aka Mr. Sidecar of Side Strider Inc., has been building and selling sidecars since 1969, and has put on the annual Griffith Park sidecar rally in Los Angeles for the past 34 years. Half a dozen other American companies, like Champion and Motorvation and Texas and California (made in Virginia) are producing sidecars, along with long lists of options and accessories.
In Europe there is a demand for specialized rigs, with sophisticated suspension systems dedicated to improving the handling of what is usually a cumbersome contraption. I remember well the day I was riding in the Alps, and far ahead I saw a sidecar outfit. I’ll catch him in no time, I thought, but once he had a glimpse of me in his mirror he twisted the throttle and it was all I could do just to keep up with him. It was only when we got into traffic that I actually caught up; he had an EML rig powered by a BMW K100, and a wife and small child in the car.
In this country we now have only three motorcycle companies which sell sidecar outfits. One is the ephemeral Harley-Davidson, for a cool $25,000-plus. Another is the Russian-made Ural, which has half-a-dozen models, including those with a driven sidecar wheel. And the least-known is the Royal Enfield, which can provide your RE dealer with a Bombay-made Cozy sidecar that will bolt to your Bullet motorcycle—as well as to other makes and models.
A dozen American companies are either manufacturing or importing sidecars, and costs can vary greatly. The Velorex Model 562 sidecar can be had for $2,600, including universal mounting brackets, and will fit your Suzuki Boulevard S40 or any number of other motorcycles. Or start with a BMW K1200LT and bolt on a Dutch-made EZS Summit sidecar, with all appropriate suspension and wheel modifications, and you could be looking at an extra 15 grand. It all depends on how much you would like to spend.
One last note: While many automotive museums have motorcycles with sidecars in their collections, there is only one museum that I know of which is dedicated to the history of sidecars, and that is Constantino Frontalini’s International Sidecar Museum near Cingoli, in Italy’s province of Macerata. Run up his website, www.sidecar.it, and you won’t be disappointed—a working knowledge of Italian is helpful, although the pictures need little explanation.
If you are thinking of bolting a third wheel to your motorcycle, you had better learn all about toe-in and lean-out and wheel offset and a lot of other measurements. It is relatively easy to attach the contraption, not so easy to do it right. And done wrong you will wonder why the darned thing is such a surly brute to drive.
In this country we attach a sidecar on the right side of a motorcycle, allowing the driver to pull out from behind a truck and see what is coming. In England, and other left-hand drive countries, the car is on the left side. Pity the poor English lass whose boyfriend wants to take a trip on the continent—as now that the sidecar is on the wrong side, think how far the driver has to pull out to see around a truck….
The natural physics of a motorcycle’s handling, involving lean, are canceled when a sidecar is attached—unless, of course, you get a leaner, but I don’t think anybody is manufacturing such an item any more. I put a thousand miles on an Equa-Lean outfit some 20 years ago and loved it. But that is because at heart I am a motorcyclist, rather than a sidecarist.
Once that third wheel is attached, the lean factor is gone, and steering is done by turning the front wheel—which is why a rig is “driven” rather than “ridden.”
Buying or Putting Together a Sidecar
Think seriously. Driving a sidecar rig is very, very different from riding a motorcycle. As a matter of fact, there are probably no similarities whatsoever. Sidecarists are generally a genial and friendly lot, so I would sincerely recommend that a beginner try to find an old hand in his general vicinity, and listen closely to the advice. The biggest collection of hacksters can be found through the United Sidecar Association (USCA), a 30-year-old organization which puts on an annual rally and a publishes a bimonthly newsletter, The Sidecarist. USCA can be contacted via its website, www.sidecar.com, or through its membership headquarters at 130 South Michigan, Villa Park, Illinois 60181. Get in touch with the USCA and see if any class in driving rigs is being offered within your sphere. I cannot emphasize enough: You should get proper instruction.
However, since that is rarely possible, appreciate that the learning curve is rather slow, and do not overestimate your ability. The single biggest concern is “lifting” the sidecar, which can happen when going around a right corner or curve…simple physics can cause the sidecar to rise up and the motorcycle to lean in the opposite direction of where the driver wants to go. This is all good fun for experienced sidecarists, terrifying for the neophytes—and their passengers.
In 1997 the USCA Sidecar Safety Program published a 120-page manual, written mostly by the genial sidecarist David Hough, called Driving a Sidecar Outfit, which is available from Whitehorse Press (www.whitehorsepress.com) for $24.95. Such a manual is never out of date. Also, this spring a new website, www.sidecarsafety.com, should be up and running, instructing viewers about doing all sorts of sidecar stuff safely.
There is also a consumer publication dedicated to sidecar lovers, HACK’d: The Magazine For and About Sidecarists, a fat quarterly edited by Chris Dodson, $29 a year, P.O. Box 58, Buckhannon, West Virginia 26201; www.hackd.com. Contact Dodson at email@example.com or call (304) 472-5507.
The Sidecar Industry Council has some two dozen members, including dealers; run the SIC up on your computer (www.sidecar-industry.com) and see what you might have in the area.
Sidecar Buyers Guide
This is an imprecise and incomplete listing of American sidecar manufacturers and importers. There is way too much information to include here, since some companies have a number of sidecar models, as well as a host of accessories, so I will leave it to the gentle reader to contact these businesses on his or her own. My recommendation is to check out the website first, which will give you a good background on the products offered.
California Sidecars (www.californiasidecar.com), 100 Motorcycle Run, Arrington, Virginia 22922; (800) 824-1523
Champion Sidecars (www.championsidecars.com), 18291 Enterprise Lane
Huntington Beach, California 92648; (800) 875-0949
Hannigan Motorsports (www.hannigantrikes.com), 4044 U.S. Highway 641 S.
Murray, Kentucky 42071; (270) 753-4256
Harley-Davidson Motor Co. (www.harley-davidson.com), P.O. Box 653
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201; (414) 343-4530
Motorvation Engineering (www.motorvation.com), 941 Fourth Avenue
Sibley, Iowa 51249; (800) 305-3664
Royal Enfield Motorcycles (www.enfieldmotorcycles.com), 1220B 4th Street NW
Faribault, Minnesota 55021; (800) 201-7472
Side Strider Inc. (www.sidestrider.com), Also imports British Watsonian sidecars
15838 Arminta Street, Unit 25, Van Nuys, California 91406; (818) 780-5542
Spalding Sidecars (www.spaldingside.com), P.O. Box 631634
Nacogdoches, Texas 75963; (800) 464-1923
Steib Sidecars (www.steib-sidecars.com), Vintage Imports, P.O. Box 1503
Wall, New Jersey 07719; (732) 280-5136
Texas Sidecar Co. (www.texassidecars.com), 11672 N. Highway 78, Leonard, Texas 75452; (903) 640-2149
Ural Motorcycles (www.ural.com), Irbit MotorWorks of America, 15411 NE 95th Street, Redmond, Washington 98052; (888) 990-8484
Velorex USA Inc. (www.velorexusa.com), 3918 Park Avenue, Seaford, New York 11783; (516) 826-4184
[From the April 2006 issue of Rider]